GateD R3_5 Documentation

The GateD documentation is now all written in HTML, the HyperText Markup Language. It has been developed primarily with the NCSA Mosaic for the X Window System WWW/HTML viewer, but should work with any WWW/HTML viewer. Mosaic viewers for the X Window System, the Apple Macintosh and for Microsoft Windows are available from in the Mosaic directory.

If you are reading this file as the README file in a GateD distribution, it was converted to plain text for the distribution. The INSTALL file in this directory has also been converted from HTML to plain text. To view the GateD documentation with an HTML viewer, point it at doc/main.html.

The GateD web pages at has the latest on-line documentation for the following versions of GateD:


The document consists of the following sections:

What is Gated?
A very brief description of GateD.
Getting HELP!
How to get help installing and running GateD.
Becoming A Merit GateD Consortium Member
How to become a members of the GateD Consortium.
GateD Mail Lists
Mail lists for GateD.
Public GateD Code
What is Public GateD Code and how to obtain the latest code.
Consortium GateD Code
What is Consortium GateD Code, and how to obtian the latest code.
GateD Consortium Home Page
A pointer to on-line information about GateD.
GateD Consortium
A brief description of the GateD Consortium.
Licensing GateD
An overview of GateD licensing.
GateD Copyright Information
Copyrights that apply to GateD.
Installation Guide
Describes how to configure and install gated.
Configuration Guide
Describes the GateD configuration file in excruciating detail.
Operations Guide
Describes the command line options and signals that GateD supports as well as the various support programs included.
Internals Guide
We are no longer supporting a 3.5 internals guide. Please refer to Version 4 internals document with notes on changes from 3.5 code. This document describes various aspects of GateD's internal work.

What is GateD?

GateD is a modular software program consisting of core services, a routing database, and protocol modules supporting multiple routing protocols (RIP versions 1 and 2, DCN HELLO, OSPF version 2, EGP version 2 and BGP version 2 through 4.) GateD was first used to interconnect the NSFNET and the emerging regional networks, and to implement filtered routing based on policy. GateD allows the network administrator to control import and export of routing information by individual protocol, by source and destination autonomous system, source and destination interface, previous hop router, and specific destination address. The network administrator can specify a preference level for each combination of routing information being imported by using a flexible masking capability. Once the preference levels are assigned, GateD makes a decision on which route to use independent of the protocols involved.

GateD is designed to handle dynamic routing with a routing database built from information exchanged by routing protocols.

Getting HELP!

If you need assistance or have any questions, don't bang your head against the wall. Post to the mailing list. There are many people with GateD experience who may be able to take a moment to help.

When reporting a problem with GateD, several pieces of information will greatly assist in debugging:

  1. GateD version (R3_5_6).

  2. What system it is running on, hardware, software and versions.

  3. Your configuration file.

  4. The interface configuration.

    It helps to provide this as both the output of netstat -in (netstat -i -n on BSD 4.2 based systems) and an ifconfig for each interface (ifconfig -a will work for some versions of SunOS 4 and later.

  5. The routing table

    The Routing table may be listed by using i.e. netstat -rn (netstat -r -n on BSD 4.2 based systems)

  6. GateD's idea of the Routing table.

    To get this start GateD with -t (which is short for -tgeneral). Setting tracing options in the config file will not get all this information because GateD scans the interfaces before parsing the config file. So you must specify tracing on the command line.

  7. Dump GateD Routing Table

    To get this start GateD and do a "gdc dump" using the gdc utility gated provides.

  8. Trace output of your problem.

    If it is a RIP problem, turn on RIP tracing, an EGP problem, turn on EGP tracing.

Send Bug reports to either:

The GateD family of users and developers provides a large amount of information to newcomers. We are working on lists of Frequent Asked questions for new users. Please check the GateD Home page FAQ documentation.

GateD Mail Lists

The following e-mail addresses are available for help with GateD.

There are the main mailing lists for the GateD Project:
The gated-members mailing list is a private discussion list for GateD Consortium members. Send mail to for information on joining the Consortium.

To subscribe, send a request to to
The gated-people mailing list is for the exchange and disemination of information about the current and beta releases of GateD. Hypertext archives from this year are available. Archives are also available for previous years.

To subscribe, send a request to to
The gated-alpha mailing list is for the exchange and disemination of information about the current and beta releases of GateD. Hypertext archives from this year are available. Archives are also available for previous years.

To subscribe, send a request to to
This mailing list regroups all the developers and technical contacts for Gated at Merit. It can be used if you want to reach anyone in charge of Gated for any question about gated.

No subscription possible.
To be used to report bugs to the developers.

No subscription possible.
To be used for any question regarding the Gated Consorsium.

No subscription possible.

GateD Public Code

GateD has code in two source trees:

The Consortium code is released in 3 separate versions:

  1. Version 4 - GateD Unicast
  2. Version 5 - GateD Multicast
  3. Version 6 - GateD IPv6

The Consortium code is developed out of a single library for releases 4, 5, and 6. These releases have the nice features of being "autoconfed" and will adapt more easily to your environment that the public GateD code. You can probably obtain a "no-cost" license to use this code. Please see the next section for details.

The Public GateD code is available for anonymous ftp to all people in the Internet. GateD Public code cannot be redistributed without obtaining a redistribution license for GateD Version 3.

You do not need to be a member to obtain the Public GateD code or to apply for a redistribution license.

You can obtain Public versions of GateD via:

Earlier versions of GateD (3.5) are available for

anonymous FTP from: pub-research/gated/release.tar.gz

On the GateD Consoritum Home Page at under the Code, Tools and Documents section several versions of GateD 3.5 are available for anonymous ftp.

GateD Public Code Supported Merit, Consortium, and Public Funds

The GateD Public code has been supported by Merit, the GateD Consortium members, grants, and research institutions. This varied group of people have supported making high quality software available to the Internet at no cost for academic and research applications.

Support for GateD Public code has come from:

  1. Merit

    Merit supports the public domain software development with people and equipment resources.

  2. GateD Consortium members GateD Consortium members donated money and code to the public code base by designating code to go into the public code base.

    An example of such generous members are: Hitachi and Digital. Hitachi has created test tools and asked that much of it's code be donated back to the public arena. Digital asked that IPv6 code be available in the public domain.

  3. Public Money from Grants and Federal Institutions

    NSF support a great deal of GateD's early development via the NSFNET projects. In addition, some of the early code was also developed by IBM as part of their contribution to the NSFNET.

    The FAA supported the development of the IDRP code for the FAA project. DARPA funded some of the work for the base GateD code.

    The CAIRN project has helped develop the BGP-4++ code.

  4. Research Institutions are Supporting GateD Development

    Various Research Institutions are supporting the GateD Consortium development of the public code as Academic Supporting members:

    1. SDSC (USA)
    2. INRIA (France)

      INRIA is specifically supporting the IPv6 operations.

    3. WIDE (Japan)

GateD Consortium Code

The GateD Consortium code is developed via Commercial companies adding their resources to the Internet. This code is available to the Internet for "Academic and Research" use. Our definition of Academic and Research use includes anyone who wants to use or examine the code, but not use it in a commercial product or commercial service.

You can probably obtain a "no-cost" license to use this code even if you are at a commercial companyif you are:

The Consortium code is released in 3 separate versions:

  1. Version 4 - GateD Unicast
  2. Version 5 - GateD Multicast
  3. Version 6 - GateD IPv6

The Consortium code is developed out of a single library for releases 4 (4.2 and above), 5 and 6. These releases have the nice features of being "autoconfed" and will adapt more easily to your environment that the public GateD code.

Release 4.0 and 4.1 are not "autoconf", but contain additional features for protocols. Please click here for a description of the code additions to GateD-Unicast.

The Consortium GateD code is available for ftp via a web interface at


which is the Code, Tools and Documents section.
Several versions of GateD are available for ftp. Any source code for versions of Consortium GateD versions of code (versions 4, 5, and 6) require a membership id and password. You can obtain these at "no-cost" by becoming a member of GateD for any particular version.

Obtaining GateD Consortium Code

We urge you to make sure you are using the latest copy of GateD. GateD Consortium is easy to obtain over the network if you are a GateD member. If you are not a member, it is easy to become a member. Please see the section below.

GateD members can obtain the latest GateD source, tools and documentation from

Becoming A GateD member

Becoming a members is easy. Membership depends on how you you are going to use GateD.

If you are planning, to use Gated in a Commercial product or a Internet Service product you should apply one of the following membership categories:

For further details on application forms and membership, click here

If you are planning to use GateD for Academic and Research purposes, you may apply for Academic and Research Membership. This membership is available to those using GateD for research and academic purposes only. Commercial uses include using GateD in a product that is sold as a commercial product or used to provide a commerical service.

Our definition of what constitutes "Academic and Research" purposes is very "broad". Our business is to build and transfer technology. Merit, Inc. is a research institution which transfers technology from Academic and Research to the Internet. The GateD Consortium to support the routing technology in the Internet. Please apply if you think you investigating GateD for:

The general rule of thumb is: "if you make money using the code please send some of that money back so more code can be developed." We are investigating Grant funding as well. Any publically funded code can go into the

You can become a GateD Academic and Research member by filling out a GateD Membership form on the Gated Web page at If you do not have web connectivity, you can ftp the form and send back the form to

GateD Consortium Home Page

Further information about GateD may be obtained from the GateD Consortium Home Page with an HTML viewer. The GateD Web pages include:

  1. Information about Merit GateD Consortium Membership

  2. Code, Tools and on-line documentation for most Gated Release

  3. Support and Service (Mail lists, Bugs, Release dates)

  4. Information about the Merit GateD Cosortium

  5. GateD's use in the Network

  6. GateD's Reference Library

    GateD Consortium

    The GateDaemon Consortium presents a formal structure to support and expand the current successful collaborations already in place to develop GateD functionality.

    Membership is open to all organizations interested in supporting and participating in development of internetwork routing protocols. Membership is not a prerequisite for licensing of GateD source code. More information about the GateD Consortium may be obtained from the GateD Consortium Web Page or my e-mail to

    Licensing GateD

    Source Code

    The GateD source code, tools and documentation is based on three different product lines: GateD Unicast, GateD Multicast, GateD IPv6. In each of the products, has it's own software base, release dates, and product desciptions.

    New GateD Source code, tools and internal documentation is available to GateD members only . Binaries for utilities or on-line documentation is available for anonymous ftp or via the web.

    Members of the Academic and Research community can join the the Merit GateD Consortium at no cost by simply filling out a GateD Academic and Research membership.

    We have a very broad definition of what "Academic and Research" usage is.

    For details consult our Web page for tips. If you are at an Internet Service Provider, and want to use GateD to debug problems, we still consider this an Academic and Research use. If you want to use GateD at home, we encourage you to apply for the Academic and Research license. The purpose behind the license is to help us find out who uses the software and how. In addition, with proven public use, we may be able to obtain more public money. The benefit of public money is that more of GateD can be returned to the "public" version of GateD. The Merit's GateD Consortium's goal is to keep the quality of Software high in the Internet at large via technology transfer to both the Academic and Research at large and Commercial companies.

    We are working toward supporting all publically available operating systems as well as those of our members. The Merit GateD Consortium has not accomplished this goal, and looks to the linux, FreeBSD, NETBSD, and other operating system communities for help. can use

    This membership simply requires that the member:

    The term of each of the Merit GateD Consortiuim licenses is 1 year. However, you may renew for 10 years or more.

    A Gold membership spans two product lines and allows for commercial redistribution for both product lines. The other membership categories are in respect to a particular product line. Membership is a requirement for distribution of GateD sources or binaries.

    For commerical redistrbution you need to become either a

    For redistribution to support a Commerical Internet Service, you need to become either a

    Each of the commerical memberships require a fee.

    For redistribution of binaries and sources within the Academic and Research community, you may become either an:

    Copyright Information

    The following are the short forms of the copyrights that apply to GateD. If you are reading this document with an HTML viewer, click on them to see the legalese in excruciating detail.

    Copyright (c) 1996 The Regents of the University of Michigan All Rights Reserved

    License to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation can be obtained from Merit at the University of Michigan.

    This package and associated documentation is Copyright (c) 1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995 Cornell University., all rights reserved. This software contains code that is Copyright (c) 1988 Regents of the University of California., all rights reserved.;

    This package contains code that is Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1991 The University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland., all rights reserved.

    Note: OSPF_2 code (version 2 with RFC 1583 support) does not require the University of Maryland Copyright.

    This package contains code that is Copyright 1991 D.L.S. Associates., all rights reserved.

    Last updated 1997/7/17 21:28:00.